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Theatre: Citation

Citations: MLA & APA

Find resources to help with MLA or APA citations. If you need more help, check out our citation guide or contact the library

One of the most frequently used style manuals for citing sources is the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, which is published by the Modern Language Association.

The most recent edition, the eighth edition, was published in 2016. Copies of this edition are found in the Ready Reference section of the Library. The call number is Ready Reference LB 2369 .G53 2016. Listed below are examples of sample citations.


Works Cited Page: General Rules

Here are some general rules on how to format your Works Cited page: 

  • The works cited page appears at the end of your paper

  • Each cited source must be on the works cited page and each entry on the works cited page must be cited in the text of your paper

  • Begin the works cited page on a new page

  • Number each page, continuing the page numbers of the paper

  • Label the page "Works Cited"; centered at the top

  • Double-space all the text on the page

  • Indent one-half inch from the left margin all the lines after the first line (hanging indentation)

  • Capitalize each word in titles of articles, books, etc, do not capitalize article, prepositions or conjunctions

  • Italicize titles of larger works and quotation marks for titles of shorter works

  • Invert the authors' names; give the last name first, then the first name

  • Alphabetize the entries by the last name of the author of each work

Please note: These are basic guidelines, for more detailed information, consult the MLA Manual. You can view a sample MLA paper at the OWL at Purdue website. (Refer to page 12 for an example of a Works Cited page).


MLA 8th Edition: Guiding Principles

In the 7th edition of the Handbook, a separate set of citation instructions were given for each format type.  The problem with this approach is that there is no way to anticipate all format types a student may encounter.

To solve this problem, this new edition of the MLA Handbook provides a "universal set of guidelines" for citing sources across all format types.

These guidelines state that, if given, these major elements should be included in the citation:

1. Author.
2. Title of Source
3. Title of Container
4. Other Contributors
5. Version
6. Number
7. Publisher
8. Publication date
9. Location

Sometimes, elements 3-9 will repeat again, if say, your journal was inside a database.

Putting it all together:

Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol.64, no. 1, 2010, pp.69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.


Major Changes in the 8th Edition

1. vol. and no. are now spelled out.

Instead of 32.3; it's: vol. 32, no. 3

2. Place of publication is omitted.

3. Page numbers are designated with pp.

4. Date of access is omitted.

5. Medium of publication is omitted.


A Journal Article Retrieved from a Database

A source in two containers -

1. Author: Lorensen, Jutta.
​2. Title of source: "Between Image and Word, Color, and Time: Jacob Lawrence's The Migration Series."


Container 1

3. Title of container: African American Review
6. Number: vol.40, no. 3,
8. Publication date: 2006,
9. Location: pp. 571-86.

Container 2

3. Title of container: EBSCOHost,
9. Location: search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=24093790&site=ehost-live.

Final Works-Cited List Entry

 
                               ​
 

Source: Works Cited: A Quick Guide 


Works Cited entries: Format Examples

The discipline of English, as well as many other disciplines in the humanities, use MLA citation format.  Below are some examples for formatting the Works Cited page.  Look in the drop-down menu for examples of in-text citations.

Book,
Single Author

Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Vintage, 1988.     

Book,
Two Authors

Casell, Kay Ann and Uma Hiremath. Reference and Information Services in the 21st Century: An Introduction. Neal-Schuman, 2004.

(NOTE: Authors should be listed in the order they are listed on the title page.)

Book,
Three or More Authors

Robbins, Chandler S., et al. Birds of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Golden, 1966.

Book,
with Translator or other contributors

Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles, Viking, 1996.

Here are other common descriptions: Adapted by, Directed by, Edited by, Illustrated by, Introduction by, Narrated by, Performance by.

A work (e.g., essay, short story) in an anthology or compilation.

Kimball, Jean. "Growing Up Together: Joyce and Psychoanalysis, 1900-1922." Joyce through the Ages: A Nonlinear View, edited by Michael Patrick Gillespie, UP of Florida, 1999, pp. 25-45.

Book,
Later Edition

Blamires, Harry. The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses. 3rd ed., Routledge, 1996.

Article in an Online Database

Hannah, Daniel K. "The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature, vol.30, no. 3, 2007, pp. 70-94. JSTOR, www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.uwf.edu/stable/30053134.

Note: When including a URL, omit the http:// and https://

Article in Print Journal

Hannah, Daniel K. "The Private Life, the Public Stage: Henry James in Recent Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature, vol.30, no.3, 2007, pp. 70-94.

Article (Web Page) on a Web Site

Farkas, Meredith. "Tips for Being a Great Blogger (and a Good Person)." Information Wants to Be Free, 19 July 2011, meredith.wolfwater.com/wordpress/2011/07/19/tips-for-being-a-great-blogger-and-good-person/. 

Note: When including a URL, omit the http:// and https://

Website (Whole site) Farkas, Meredith. Information Wants to Be Free. Jun. 2015, meredith.wolfwater.com.

Some parts of this page were adapted from the Citing Sources (Citation Styles) LibGuide created by Britt McGowan, Reference & Instruction Librarian at the University of West Florida. 

The American Psychological Association publishes the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association as its style manual for the social sciences disciplines. It is also used by other disciplines as a handbook for authorship of papers.

The most recent edition, the seventh edition, was published in 2020. This edition can be found in the Ready Reference section of the Library at the Reference Desk on the first floor. The call number is Ready Reference BF 76.7 P83 2020. Listed below are examples of sample citations. 


APA Formating Rules

Here are some general rules on how to format your paper: 

  • Margins: page margins should be set 1 inch on top, bottom, left and right
  • Font: Times New Roman, 12 font size
  • Double Space: throughout your paper, on standard white paper
  • Cover page: 
    • first page should include: full title, your name, course name and number, instructor's name, and the date
    • center and double-space all information
    • a running header with consecutive page numbering should appear flush right in the upper right-hand corner of each page, including the title page. This running header will appear one-half inch from the top of the page, and should contain a short version of the title, followed by the page number.

How do I create a citation?

A proper citation must include all of the elements in the example below when they are available. 

 

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Reference Page: General Rules

Here are some general rules on how to format your references page: 

  • The reference list appears at the end of your paper
  • Each cited source must be on the reference list and each entry on the reference list must be cited in the text
  • Begin the reference list on a new page
  • Label the page "References"; centered at the top
  • Double-space all the text on the page
  • Indent one-half inch from the left margin all the lines after the first line (hanging indentation)
  • Invert the authors' names; give the last name first, then the initials for the first name
  • Alphabetize the entries by the last name of the author of each work. If there is more than one work by the same author, arrange them in order of publication date, from oldest to most recent.
  • For two or more authors, separate the names by commas and use "&" instead of "and" for the last name mentioned.
  • Write the full title of the journal; maintaining the punctuation and capitalization used in the journal title
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

Please note: These are basic guidelines, for more detailed information, consult the APA Manual. You can view a sample APA paper at the OWL at Purdue website. (Refer to page 9 for an example of a reference page).


What’s Changed?

The newest version of the publication manual: the 7th edition was officially released in October 2019. Students: you should always check with your professor whether they’re expecting the 7th edition or the 6th edition.

Punctuation and layout

  • The manual now states to always use a single space after any body-text punctuation, whether it is at the end of a sentence or not. 
  • The term Running head: should no longer be prefixed to the running head on the title page. Now, only the actual title and a page number (typically 1) should be used.
  • Heading fonts sizes for levels 3 through 5 have been changed to make them easier to read.
  • Allowed fonts: Times New Roman size 12pt, Calibri size 11pt, Arial 11pt, Lucida Sans Unicode 10pt, and Georgia 11pt. 

Bias-free language

  • Guidelines are being added to use bias-free language when referring to people or entities. This means using the word “they” or “their” instead of gender pronouns like “he”, “she”, “his” and “her”.
  • Descriptive phrases should be preferred instead of nouns to label people.

 

Source: Elias, Daniel. “APA Style 7th Edition: What's Changed?MyBib, MyBib, 14 Sept. 2019.

The following links provide more information on how to cite using MLA or APA

Citation Help

Use these websites to help you create citations.